Smart Wound Dressings for Advanced Wound Care

Most scrapes and cuts are simple
wounds, or injuries, that doesn’t need a visit to the doctor. Traditionally
wound care covered products that can easily get from clinicians or easily find
at a local pharmacy. The type of wound care products used includes gauze,
bandages, plasters, wadding, and lint. Generally, these products do well at
curing minor injuries like cuts. However, when combined with antibacterial
ointment, or utilized with secondary dressings for more advanced wounds, these
products could boost healing and aid in averting infection.

Advanced wound care products are
intended to cure more complex wounds and to be protected under insurance
normally necessitate a doctor’s order. This incorporates alginates,
hydrocolloids, hydrogels,
and foam and film dressings. Advanced
wound care
treatments focus on the principle of moisture therapy that
renders moisture to the wound site to advance natural cell repair whereas
making the wound room to breathe. Products used in moist wound
care
usually cover the wound nicely as different wound sizes and shapes are
more resistant to foreign particles and environmental inhibitors.

Hard-to-heal wounds are a common
side-effect of age-related vascular diseases, pressure
ulcers
, obesity, and diabetes, the rates of which are expanding around the
world. The expanding monetary burden of hard-to-heal wounds on worldwide health
services has incited technological research into enhancing wound diagnostics as
well as therapeutics through smart dressings, inside which components, for
example, wireless
communication radios
, microprocessors,
and microelectronic sensors are embedded. 

Noteworthy advances have been
made, for instance, flexible substrates have supplanted rigid circuit boards, sensors
are imprinted on wireless communication are demonstrated, and commercial wound
dressing
materials. Challenges remain, nonetheless, in the areas of
seamless device integration, disability, multiparametric sensing, low-profile
components, and power supply in commercial wound dressings. 

With the rise of flexible
electronics
that has novel properties to empower a natural communication
among hardware and the human body, a wearable
healthcare device
that incorporates numerous actuators and sensors into flexible
substrates to accomplish conformal contact with the skin has given
groundbreaking plans to on‐demand treatment, disease diagnosis, and health
monitoring
because such a device can gather important physiological
information from the human body and analyze the status in time for dynamic
mediation. 

So far, researchers have created
numerous types of wearable devices to monitor
heart rate
, body temperature, blood
pressure
, sweat markers, and blood oxygen level to assess human wellbeing.
In this way, with the accomplishment of a wearable healthcare device, new-gen
of smart wound care, which comprises of sensors equipped for recognizing
physicochemical signs applicable to the wound‐healing cycle, is developing to
address these issues of current wound care. Smart wound care can give a point‐of‐care
diagnosis and real‐time monitoring, and that physicochemical information could
be gathered through wireless transmission to accomplish a closed‐loop framework
to acknowledge on‐demand treatment to enhance healing result.

For early recognition of the wound
status, numerous physicochemical markers, including inflammatory,
humidity, pH, temperature factors, and enzymes and toxins discharged by
bacteria, have been utilized as the indicators. Of these, temperature, which is
firmly identified with the infection and inflammation states at the wound site,
is viewed as one of the most significant and anticipating indicators. Abnormal
wound‐temperature alteration might be chosen as an early indicator of infection
before some other evident symptom. 

So far, different instruments for
internal temperature measurement, comprising electronic temperature
sensors
, colorimetric sensors, and infrared
thermometers
, are developed. Of them, the electronic temperature sensor
reflects numerous benefits, including easy operation, excellent accuracy, and
high sensitivity in the clinic. As of late, more attention is drawn towards a
flexible electronic temperature sensor, which has acquired incredible
accomplishments by the spearheaded and exceptional investigations. Such
extraordinary advancement has made it conceivable to plan a smart wound
dressing with real‐time wound‐temperature checking through an integrated
flexible temperature sensor.

Moreover, the integrated
temperature sensor persistently gathered wound temperatures that are sent to a
smartphone in real-time through Bluetooth, and UV‐LEDs
were utilized to remotely control the discharge of antibiotics in situ. 

Considering the intricacy and variety of the wound‐repair cycle, more pathological processes should be researched, and advanced systems incorporated with several sensing components and helpful medications should be moreover produced for the treatment of different diseases.

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