Phytopathological Disease Diagnostics- Challenges and Future Directions

reappearing and endemic plant pathogens continues to challenge the ability to protect
plant health around the world. Further, globalization, increased human
mobility, climate change, and vector and pathogen evolution have assisted in
spreading invasive plant pathogens. Accurate and early diagnoses and pathogen
observation on global, regional, and local scales are important to outbreaks
and offer time for application and development of mitigation procedures.

Phytopathology or
plant pathology identification expectedly depends on molecular technology that
is confounded, tedious and compelled to centralized laboratories. Plant disease
diagnostic networks have been created to address the issues of effective and efficient
diagnosis as well as pathogen detection, inducing participation of experts and
institutions within nations and across national borders. Networking boosts the
impacts of contracting government investments in agriculture and reducing human
resource limit in diagnostics as well as applied pathology.

Incapability to Offer Real-Time Detection Poses

conventional diagnostics methods such as Polymerase
Chain Reaction (PCR), Enzyme-Linked
Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), Fluorescence in-situ Hybridization
(FISH), Immunofluorescence (IF), Flow cytometry (FCM) and GC-MS are accessible and extensively utilized
for phytopathology disease diagnostics, they are comparatively difficult to operate, necessitates
expert technicians as well as are time consuming for data analysis. Additionally,
most of these methods cannot offer real-time detection that makes them less appropriate
for early warning systems and on-field testing.

Other than the
exceptional benefits offered by the different disease detection methods techniques
for plant illness identification application, every technique has its own
impediments. With regards to coordinate infection discovery strategies, PCR has
shown its capacity in detecting plant pathogen with higher sensitivity,
nonetheless, it necessitates planning explicit primers to enhance DNA for
identifying various pathogens. The cost restrictive strategy hence restricts
its application just to lab settings and higher value target analytes.
Furthermore, parameters such as polymerase action, deoxynucleoside triphosphate
buffer concentration could bring improbability to the result.

Adoption of Innovative Techniques in
Phytopathology Disease Diagnostics

However, as cutting
edge equipment in the lab based detection methods, portable PCR as well as its
specific sorts, for example, RT-PCR (real-time PCR) have been utilized for on-field identification. Market
players are anticipating the utilization of PCR to be continued in the coming
years. Even though the use of ELISA for phytopathology disease diagnostics isn’t
much recorded, production of test strips on the basis of ELISA will be an innovative
method for phytopathology disease diagnostics in coming years because of its noticeable
color change signal. On the other hand, the application might simply be kept to
infection identification because of the excellent sensitivity of ELISA for
infections. The application is likely to be undermined for bacterial diseases
because of its poor affectability.

While IF and FISH
offer excellent sensitivity, they are lab based techniques which necessitates skilled
personnel to function. Moreover, professional data analysis and complex sample
preparations are mandatory. The same remains constant for GC-MS regardless of
its capacity to give quantitative assurance of VOCs formed by infected plants. Whereas
offering exact information for illness identification, FCM offers overpowering
and at times unnecessary data which complicates the information analysis and necessitates
proficient and experienced experts for interpreting the outcomes of detection. Additionally,
the costly instrumentation makes it more uncertain for on-field application.

Imaging techniques
such as fluorescence imaging and thermography, even though they have been utilized
on-field for disease detection, are proved to be susceptive to parameter change
of the environment as well as absence of specificity of each kind of disease.

Sample Copy with Table of Contents

The beginning of
nanotechnology has ensued in the progressions of extremely sensitive biosensors
owing to contemporary nanofabrication methods. The specificity of the
biosensors can be significantly enhanced by the usage of enzymes, bacteriophage,
DNA and antibodies as the specific recognition element.

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